Sure Success SSC Special General Awareness

The Great people
ऐतिहासिक व्यक्तित्व – 3
July 26, 2020

CIVILIZATION AND CULTURES -2

The  Harappan (Indus Valley Civilization) Culture 

  • The first evidence of the human civilization in India was discovered in the Indus Valley; it is for that reason this civilization is known as the Indus Valley Civilization. The Indus valley Civilization was discovered first in 1921  at  the modern site of Harappa situated in Pakistan , so it is called The Harappan Culture. This civilization is also known as ‘Saindhava’ civilization; and it is deemed to be  contemporary to the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. 
SOURCE(MAP) : INDIA TODAY, JAN,1998 ISSUE
Site Location River Excavator & Year Description
HarappaMontgomery district of Pakistan Ravi M.s. vats and Rai Bahadur Dayaram sahni , 1921It has been identified as Hariyupia, which is mentioned in the Rigveda. Gateway city, fortified wall, R-37 cemetry, work-men’s quarter,
granary, copper chariot with canopy, citadel have been discovered.
MohenjodaroLarkana District
Of sindh
IndusRakhaldas benerjee , 1922 It means in sindhi language ‘the mound of the dead’.
 The site excavated several times from 1922 to 1933 by K. N. Dikshit, Dayaram Sahni, E. J. H. Mackay, M.S. Vatsa and Hargreaves under the supervision of John Marshal.
 Several mounds (Largest being 1170 mtrs long and 573 mtrs wide it was a citadel, Assembly Hall, A collegiate building in citadel, the great granary (45•71 mtrs. long and 15•23 mtrs. wide), the great Bath situated in citadel mound (It measures 11•88 x 7•01 mtrs. and 2•43 mtrs. deep), Red-Black polished ware, Bronze made dancing girl have been discovered.
Chanhudaro130 km far from Mohenjo-Daro in southIndusM.G.Mazumdar(1931C. Mackay (1935) This site is related to Pre-Harappan, Harappan, Jhukar & Jhangar culture.
 It was discovered that most of the inhabitants of Chanhudaro were artist.
Evidences of bead making, bronze shaft hole axe, carved brick have been discovered.
Kotdiji40
km. far from Mohenjodaro
IndusGhurey(1935),
Fazl Ahmad Khan (1955)
 This site is related to both Pre-Harappan and Harappan culture.
 Fortified wall, arrow heads of stone, wheel made pottery, stone houses and Blade industry have been discovered.
SutkagendorBluchistan
near Makran coast close to the Pakistan-Iran border
DastAurel stein(1927),
George Dales
(1962)
This site was an important coastal trade centre of Harappan culture.
 Several axes of copper, bangles of clay, pottery, bird whistle, human ashes have been discovered.
RoparIn Shivalika hills of Punjab SutlejYagya Dutta
Sharma(1953)
This site is related to Harappan and Post¬Harappan culture.
 Dogs with men in grave, new types of pottery, Houses made by mud -bricks. Copper axes, clay pots, clay ornaments have been discovered.
LothalSaragwala village in Ahmedabad district of Gujarat near Khambhat valley BhogvaS.R.Rao(1957) This site was divided into 3 architectural areas-(l) The citadel (2) The lower town and (3) The dockyard
 Pottery with the painting of clever fox, evidence of cotton, Bead factory, Iranian seal, Drill Ivory, Mummy, Stone anvils, copper ingots, whole tusks of elephant have been discovered.
KalibangaSri Ganganagar district of Rajasthan GhaggarAmalanand
Ghosh(1953)
B.B.LAL & B.K. Thapar(1961)
 Kalibangan means in local dialect-‘Black bangles’.
 This was known as third capital of Indus empire.
 Bangles of copper, six types of pottery, blade of chalcedony and agate, terracotta, shell, a ploughed field, a fort, mud-brick fortification, stone blade, cart wheel have been discovered.
Banawali Hissar
district of
Haryana
SaraswatiR S. Bist (1973)This site was related to Pre-Harappan
and Harappan culture.
(ii) Houses of burnt bricks, weapons, seals,
terracotta figurines have been discovered.
Alamgirpur30 kilo –
meters far from
Meerut in
U.P.
Hindon
(A tribu-
tary of
Yamuna)
Yajnadutta
Sharma (1958)
This site represents the last phase of
Harappan culture.
(ii) Number of beads, terra cotta figurines have
been discovered.
Rangpur 50 km.far in north-
east from Lothal
in Ahmeda-
bad district
of Gujarat
Bhadar M. S. vats(1931)
S. Ranganath Rao
(1953-54)
This site represents the pre-Harappan
culture.
(ii) The beads, tools, ornaments, pottery, mud-
brick fortification have been discovered.
(iii) Goddess & seal evidences have not been
discovered.
Surkotda Kutch
district of
Gujarat
Jagpati Joshi (1964)
Bones of horses, a special cemetery covered
with a huge rock, bead making and
shopping complex etc. evidences have
been discovered. (ii) This site represents the last phase of Indus
civilization.
Malvan Surat
district of
Gujrat
Tapti Jagpati Joshi (1967)Clay pots, a canal, ornaments, a harbour, a
platform made by Mud-bricks have been
discovered.
(ii) It has been discovered that this site was the
port of Indus valley civilization.
Rojadi Rajkot
district of
Guiarat
Bhadar Archaeological
Deptt. of India (1962)
Fortified walls, various ornaments, Red
and Black clay pots, evidences of burning
have been discovered.
Mittathal Bhiwani
district of
Haryana
Surajbhan (1968)This site represents both the Harappan and
Post-Harappan culture.
(ii) Clay pots equally to Harappan pots, mud-
bricks, copper axe, evidences of planed city
have been discovered.
DholaviraKutchha
district of
Guiarat
Runn of
Kutchha
R S. Bisht (1990-91 to 2005)Unique water management system, seven
cultural stages have been discovered.
  • The first ever evidence of the Harappa civilization came to light after excavations carried out by the famous archaeologist, Sir Alexander Cunningham, in 1875. He discovered various antiquities including one engraved seal and remains of houses, on the bases of which he suspected the existence of a civilization of much older India; this way, the earliest picture of India’s past became known. In the year 1921, Rai Bahadur Dayaram Sahni first published detailed account of the Harappa Civilization on the bases of the evidences of remains discovered in excavations.
  • Geographical extension of the Indus civilization was triangular, extending from north to south for—extending approximately 1100 km from J&K to Narmada Valley, from west to east approximately 1600 km extending from the Makran coast of Baluchistan to Meerut and Saharanpur in the east. Total area of the Indus civilization is 12,99,600 sq. km. Although, the Mesopotamia Civilization of Egypt is deemed to be the contemporary to the Indus Valley Civilization, but its expansion or geographical extension was half in size in comparison.
  • After carrying out intensive study of the skeletons and skulls found in the excavations, Dr. Seual and Dr. Guha divided these tribes into four classes: 1. Proto-Australoid, 2.  Mongoloid, 3.  Mediterranean and  4.Alpine. The Mediterranean  race, which is also called ‘Iberians’ had played important role in the origin of the Indus civilization
  • Town planning and construction of buildings is the first and foremost feature of the Indus Valley Civilization. The roads and streets of the towns were straight intersecting at right angles.  A 33 ft wide main road has been discovered; it was in the center of the town and runs straight southward from north. Another main and wider road runs from east to west of the town intersecting the first road at right angle in the center. These roads were kachcha and pucca in patches. Width of the roads is 9 to 18 ft; and the narrowest street is 6 ft wide.  Main entrances to the buildings faced the roads.

Various Dates of Indus Civilization According to different Scholars/Methods

Scholar/Method Date
Mortimer Wheeler2500-1500 B.C.
R.S. Sharma 2500-1800 B.C.
John Marshall3250-2750 B.C.
Fare Service 2000-1500 B.C.
C. Mackay 2800-2500 B.C.
Madho Swaroop Vatsa 3500-2700 B.C
Radio-Carbon Dating 2300-1750 B.C.
H. Heras 5600 B.C.
C.L. Facti2800-2500 B.C.
  • A huge swimming place of large dimensions has been unearthed in the excavations at Mohenjo-Daro—40 ft long, 23 ft wide and 8 ft deep. It is quadrangular in shape having rooms and verandahs or galleries on all sides. At either side there is a raised platform with a flights of steps.  There were channels to fill it with water and to empty it for cleaning purposes. A well in its vicinity was the source of filling water in the bath.  There was a place for warming water for bathing.  In the views of some of the scholars, the Great Bath was meant for public use as a source of entertainment like a swimming pool. ‘The Great Granary’ is another important find. This was probably a storehouse for preserving cereals for use in the rainy days.
  • According to the archaeological evidences, after the Harappan culture, the remains of the following cultures have been discovered from the same sites-
  • (I)Jhukar culture of Chanhu­daro  (Ii) Graveyard H-Culture of Punjab (ill) Jhangar culture (iv) Bara culture (v) Earthenware culture  (vi) Ochre  colour ware culture (vii) Painted Grey Ware culture
  • Archaeologists think that the decline of the Indus Valley civilization had started approximately around 1750 B.C.

नोट : इस ब्लॉग पर प्रकाशित किसी भी आर्टिकल / मटेरियल/सामग्री का किसी भी दूसरे ब्लॉग/वेबसाइट पर किसी भी रूप में टेक्स्ट/ऑडियो / वीडियो या अन्य प्रकार से बिना अनुमति के प्रकाशित करना अपराध माना जायेगा. इस ब्लॉग पर उपलब्ध किसी भी सामग्री का किसी भी रूप में व्यावसायिक उपयोग (पुस्तक प्रकाशन या अन्य तरीके से ) कॉपीराइट एक्ट का उल्लंघन माना जायेगा.

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