India is the 7th largest country by area, the 2nd most populous country with over 1.2 billion people and the largest democracy in the world.
2. Plains of the Ganga and the Indus
3. The Desert Zone
4. Southern Peninsula
26th January(Republic Day)
2nd October(Gandhi Jayanti)
Seasons 1. Winter(January-February)
2. Hot weather summer(March-May)
3. Rainy south-western monsoon(june-sept.)
4. Post monsoon or North-east monsoon in the southern peninsula(Oct-Dec.)
The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron(Kesaria) at the top, White in the middle & dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. Ratio – The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three.
Design –In the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel which represents the Chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. It has 24 spokes . Adoption –The National Flag of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 july,1947.
State Emblem – The State is Emblem is adopted from the Lion Capital of Ashoka by the Government of India on 26 jan.,1950 .
Original Emblem – In the original emblem , there are four lions,standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell shaped lotus.Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone. The Capital is crowned by the wheel of the law(Dharma Chakra).
Adopted Emblem – In the adopted State Emblem only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The Wheel apears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The bell shaped lotus has been deleted. The phrase “Satyameva Jayate” (Truth alone triumphs)from Mundak- Upanishad is inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari Script.
‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ is the National Anthem of India. Adoption –The song ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 january,1950.
Description –The song ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ was first sung on 27 December,1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem.
Singing/Playing time – Playing or singing time of the full version of the National Anthem is approximately 52 seconds. A short version consisting of the first and last lines of the stanza is also played on certain occasions. Playing/ singing time of short version is approximately 20 seconds.
‘Vande mataram’ is the National Song of India. It was originally written in Bengali by Bankim chandra chattopadhyay. This song is taken from Bankim chandra chattopadhyay’s famous novel ‘Anandmath(1882)’.
Description –‘Vande -mataram’ was adopted as the National Song of India on 24 january, 1950. It was first sung by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 (Calcutta) session of the Indian National Congress. The Song’s first two verses were given the official status of the National Song of the Republic of India. The song was translated into english by Aurobindo Ghosh
The National calendar based on the ‘Saka Era’ with ‘Chaitra’ as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 march, 1957 (in saka era Chaitra 1, 1879) along with the Gregorian Calendar for the following official purpose-
1.Gazette of India
2.All India Radio’s news broadcasting Service
3. Calendars issued by the Govt. of India.
4. Government Communications addressed to the public.
|Saka Month||Days||Gregorian Month|
Tiger(Panthera Tigris , Linnaeus) is the National Animal of India. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark strips. The Royal Bengal Tiger is found throught the country except in the north–western region also in the neighbouring countries Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh .
The Indian Peacock (Pavo Cristatus) is the National Bird of India. It is a colourful, swan sized bird, with a fan shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long , slender neck. Male Peacock is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and spectacular bronze green trail of around 200 elongated feathers. The peacock is widely found in the Indian sub-continent from the South and East of the Indus river, Jammu and Kashmir, East Assam, South Mizoram and whole of the Indian Peninsula.
The peacock was declared the National Bird of India in 1965 because of its rich religious and legendary involvement in Indian Traditions. The Indian peacock is fully protected under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
Lotus (Botanical name- Nelumbo Nucipera gaertn) is the ‘National Flower of India’. It is known as sacred flower. It occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India.
The Banyan Tree (Botanical name-Ficus benghalensis) is ‘The National Tree of India’. This huge tree towers over its neighbours and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees.
Mango : The National Fruit of India
Mango (Botanical name-Manigifera Indica) is the National Fruit of India. It is popularly known as ‘The Kings of Fruits’ and ‘Food of the Gods’. Mango is a rich source of vitamins A,C & D.
A large number of mango varieties can be found in India. Following are the most popular varieties of mangoes – Alphonso (Hapoos) , Amrapali, Bangalora , Banganpalli(Benishan) , Bombay , Bombay green , Chausa , Langada , Dasheri, Safeda , Totapuri , Zardalu , vanraj , Gulabkhas , Kishen Bhog , Suvarnarekha
The Ganga(Ganges) is the National river of India . It was declared as the National river on 4 nov., 2008 by Dr. Manmohan singh, Prime Mininster of India. The Ganga is a transboundary river of India and Bangaladesh. The Ganga originates in the snow- fields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi river and empties into the Bay of Bengal.
The Ganga River : The National river of India
The Ganges River Dolphin is the National Aquatic Animal of India. The Ministry of Environment and Forests notified the Ganges River Dolphin as the National Aquatic Animal of India on 18th may,2010. It inhabits the Ganges,Brahma- putra,Meghna and karnaphulisangu river systems of Nepal , India and Bangaladesh. It is estimated that their total population is around 2,000 and they are recognised as ‘ highly endangered’ in schedule 1 of the Wildlife Protection Act(1972).
(‘Ra’) is the newly adopted symbol or sign of the Indian Currency. It was adopted by the Govt. of India on 15th July,2010. The symbol conceptualised and designed by D. Udai Kumar, a post graduate in Design from IIT, Mumbai has been chosen from thousands of concept entries received by the Ministry of Finance through an open competition among resident Indian Nationals.
The elephant was declared ‘The National Heritage Animal of India’ by the Ministry of Environment and Forests on 22 oct., 2010. It was declared after the recommendation of Task Force on Elephant Project. It was approved by the standing committee of National Board of Wildlife in its meeting on october13, 2010.
Hockey is the National Game of India. The game is played all over the country in all the states. India was the world champion in hockey for many years. India first became the world champion, in hockey , in 1928, by winning the gold medal at Amsterdam Olympics. India has an impressive record with eight Olympic gold medals in hockey. The golden era of hockey in India was the period from 1928-1956. During this period India won 6 consecutive Gold medals in the Olympics.
The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports , in its reply of a RTI application , said that the ministry has not declared any sport the National Game. The information was sent on August 02, 2012 to a Lucknow based 7th class Aishwarya by the additional secretary in the sports ministry Shiv Pratap Singh.