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April 7, 2020
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May 9, 2020



  • Country’s  name   -Republic of  India (Bharat Ganarajya)
  • Capital                    –     Delhi
  • Ancient names     -Bharatvarsha , Punyabhumi,  Aryavritta,  Bharatkhande, Hindustan
  • Area                         –    32,87,263  sq. kms.
  • Population         –      1,210,193,422

India is the 7th largest country by area, the 2nd most populous country with over 1.2 billion people and the largest democracy in the world.

  • Location  – The Indian Peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The country is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the East, The Arabian sea in the west and the Indian Ocean to the South.
  • Indian Standard Time –   GMT +05.30
  • Geographical  Coordinates – Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the   mainland extends between latitudes 8° 4 &  37°6 north , longitudes 68°7 & 97°25 east & measures about 3,214kms. From north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933kms from  east to west between the extreme longitudes.
  • Country Code           –    +91    
  • Physical Background –  Countries having a common border with India  are Afghanistan & Pakistan to the north-west China,Bhutan & Nepal to the north,Myanmar to the east & Bangladesh to the east of west Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow  channel of sea formed by the palk strait and the Gulf  of Mannar.
  • Land Frontier –                   About 15,200 kms.
  • Length of the  Coastline  – The total length of the coastline of the main- land , Lakshdweep Islands & Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 7516.6 kms.
  • Physical Regions   – 1. The Great Mountain Zone

                                             2. Plains of the Ganga and the Indus

                                             3. The Desert Zone

                                             4.  Southern Peninsula

  • India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
  • Ecozone  – The Climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. India’s  Climate is  affected by two seasonal winds-the north-east monsoon and the south-west monsoon.  


  • National Days         – 15th  August (Independence Day)

                                           26th  January(Republic Day)

                                            2nd October(Gandhi Jayanti)                                         

      Seasons        1. Winter(January-February)

                              2. Hot weather summer(March-May)

                            3. Rainy south-western monsoon(june-sept.)

                         4. Post monsoon or North-east monsoon in the southern peninsula(Oct-Dec.)

National symbols

  • National Flag            – Tricolour (Tiranga)
Our National Flag- Tricolour

 The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron(Kesaria) at the top, White in the middle & dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. Ratio – The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three.  

Fact File

  • The Indian National Flag was designed in 1916 by Pingali Venkayya from Machilipatnam.
  • As of 2009, The Karnataka  Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangh was the sole manufacturer of the Flag.
  • The Flag Code of India regulates the usage of the National Flag of India.
  • In 2002, on hearing an appeal from Navin Jindal, The Supreme Court of India directed to the Indian Govt. to amend the code to allow usages of the Flag by Private Citizens.
  • The Saffron colour represents courage and sacrifice, White –truth, peace and purity while the Green represents the happiness & prosperity. The Ashok Chakra represents the Laws of Dharma.

 Design –In the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel which represents the Chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. It has 24 spokes . Adoption –The National Flag of India was adopted by  the Constituent Assembly on 22 july,1947.

State Emblem    – The State is Emblem is adopted from the Lion Capital of Ashoka by the Government of India on 26 jan.,1950 .

State Emblem of India

 Original Emblem  –   In the original emblem , there are four lions,standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell shaped lotus.Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone. The Capital is crowned by the wheel of the law(Dharma Chakra).  


Fact File

  • The four lions of the State Emblem symbolize the power, courage, pride and confidence.
  • The State Emblem is symbolic of contemporary India’s reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to world peace and goodwill.
  • The Lion Capital was erected in the 3rd century B.C. by the great emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Gautama Buddha preached his first sermon.
  • The abacus is girded by four smaller animals as the guardians of the four directions-the lion of the north, the elephant of the east, the horse of the south and Bull of the west.  


Adopted  Emblem  – In the adopted State Emblem only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The Wheel apears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on  right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The bell shaped lotus has been deleted. The phrase “Satyameva  Jayate” (Truth alone triumphs)from Mundak- Upanishad is inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari Script.

National Anthem

‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ is the National Anthem of India.  Adoption –The song ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent  Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 january,1950.

National Anthem

Description –The song ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ was first sung on 27 December,1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem.  

Fact File

  • The original Bengali song was translated into Hindi as ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ by Abid Ali.
  • Rabindranath Tagore himself translated ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ from Bengali to English.
  • 27 December, 2011 marked the completion of 100 years of ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ since it was sung for the first time.
  • English version song of the‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ is titled as ‘The morning  song of India.
  • The song‘Jana-Gana-Mana’ was first published under the title “Bharat-Vidhata” in Tatvabodhini Patrika in January,1912.
Original JANA-GANA-MANA in Bangla Language

 Singing/Playing time  – Playing or singing time of the full version of  the National Anthem is approximately 52 seconds. A short version consisting of the first and last lines of the stanza is also played on certain occasions. Playing/ singing  time of  short  version is approximately   20  seconds.  


 National Song                                              

‘Vande mataram’ is the National Song of  India.  It was originally written in Bengali by Bankim chandra chattopadhyay. This song is taken from Bankim chandra chattopadhyay’s famous novel ‘Anandmath(1882)’. 

 Description –‘Vande -mataram’ was adopted as the National Song of  India on 24 january, 1950. It was first sung by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 (Calcutta) session of the Indian National Congress. The Song’s first two verses were given the official status of the National Song of the Republic of India. The song was translated into english by Aurobindo Ghosh

  National Calendar


The National calendar based on the ‘Saka Era’ with ‘Chaitra’  as its first month and a normal  year of 365 days was adopted from 22 march, 1957 (in saka era Chaitra 1, 1879) along with the Gregorian Calendar for the following official purpose-

 1.Gazette of India

2.All India Radio’s news broadcasting Service   

3. Calendars issued by the Govt. of India.

4. Government Communications addressed to the public.

Saka Month Days Gregorian Month
Chaitra,1 30/31 March22/21
Vaisakh,1 31 April 21
Jyaishtha,1 31 May 22
Ashadha,1 31 June 22
Shravan,1 31 July 23
Bhadrapad,1 31 August 23
Ashwin,1 30 September23
Kartik,1 30 October 23
Margashirsha,1 30 November22
Paush,1 30 December22
Magh,1 30 January21
Falgun,1 30 February20


  • Dates  of the National Calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, Chaitra’s pratipada (1st) falling on 22 march normally & on 21 march, in leap year.
  • The Saka calendar is also used in java & Bali with Hinduism religion in Indonesia.
  • The National Calendar was introduced by the calendar Reform Committee. It was headed by the well known Astro-physicist Meghnad saha.

  National Animal  

  Tiger(Panthera Tigris , Linnaeus) is the National Animal of India. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark strips. The Royal Bengal Tiger is found throught the country except in the north–western region also in the neighbouring countries Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh .  

 Tiger (Panthera Tigris , Linnaeus) : The National Animal of India


  • The combination of grace, strength, ability and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the National Animal of India.
  • The Government of India, under its “Project Tiger” programme, started a massive effort to preserve the tiger population in 1973.

National Bird   

  The Indian Peacock (Pavo Cristatus) is the National Bird of India. It is a colourful, swan sized bird, with a fan shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long , slender neck. Male Peacock is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and spectacular bronze green trail of around 200 elongated feathers. The peacock is widely found in the Indian sub-continent from the South and East of the Indus river, Jammu and Kashmir, East Assam, South Mizoram and whole of the Indian Peninsula.                          


The Indian Peacock (Pavo Cristatus) : The National Bird of India


The peacock was declared the National Bird of India in 1965 because of its rich religious and legendary involvement in Indian Traditions.  The Indian peacock is fully protected under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.                                           


National Flower    

The Lotus : The National Flower of India

Lotus (Botanical name- Nelumbo Nucipera gaertn) is the ‘National Flower of India’.  It is    known as sacred flower. It  occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India.

National Tree          

The Banyan tree : The National Tree of India

The Banyan Tree (Botanical name-Ficus benghalensis) is ‘The National Tree of India’. This huge tree towers over its neighbours and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees.  

National Fruit    

       Mango : The National Fruit of India

Mango (Botanical name-Manigifera Indica) is the National Fruit of India. It is popularly known as ‘The Kings of Fruits’ and ‘Food of the Gods’.  Mango is a rich source of vitamins A,C & D.


A large number of mango varieties can be found in India.  Following are the most popular varieties of mangoes – Alphonso (Hapoos) , Amrapali, Bangalora , Banganpalli(Benishan) , Bombay , Bombay green , Chausa , Langada , Dasheri, Safeda , Totapuri  , Zardalu  , vanraj  , Gulabkhas , Kishen Bhog   , Suvarnarekha

National River  

The Ganga(Ganges) is the National river of India . It was declared as the National river on 4 nov., 2008  by  Dr. Manmohan singh, Prime Mininster of India.  The Ganga is a transboundary river of India and Bangaladesh. The Ganga originates in the snow-  fields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi river and empties into the Bay of Bengal.

                                 The Ganga River : The National river of India        

Fact File

  • The Ganga is the longest river of India flowing over 2510 kms. of mountains, valleys and plains.
  •  It is the second greatest river in the world by water discharge.
  • There are two dams on the Ganga river-one at Haridwar and the other at Farakka.
  • The Ganga is revered by Hindus as the most sacred river on earth.
  • The Ganga river basin is one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of the world and covers an area of 1,000,000 sq. kms.
  • Its five headstreams –the Bhagirathi, Alaknanda, Mandakini, Dhauliganga and pindar– all rise in the northern mountains region of Uttarakhand.


National Aquatic Animal  

The Ganges River Dolphin  is the National Aquatic Animal of India. The Ministry of Environment and Forests notified the Ganges River Dolphin as the National Aquatic Animal of India on 18th may,2010. It inhabits the Ganges,Brahma- putra,Meghna and karnaphulisangu river  systems of Nepal , India and Bangaladesh. It is estimated that their total population is around 2,000 and they are recognised as ‘ highly endangered’ in schedule 1 of the Wildlife Protection Act(1972).   

The Ganges river Dolphin

Fact File

  • The Ganges Dolphin is among the four obligate freshwater dolphins found in the world.
  • The other three are the ‘Baiji’ found in Yangtze river (China), the ‘Bhulan’ of the Indus(Pakistan) and the ‘Boto’ of the Amazon river in the Latin America.

Indian Currency Symbol

  (‘Ra’)  is the newly adopted symbol or sign of the Indian Currency. It was adopted by the Govt. of India on 15th July,2010. The symbol conceptualised  and designed by D.  Udai Kumar, a post graduate in Design from IIT, Mumbai has been chosen from thousands of concept entries received by the Ministry of Finance through an open competition among resident Indian Nationals.      

National Heritage Animal

The Elephant : The National Heritage Animal of India

The elephant was declared ‘The National Heritage Animal of India’ by the  Ministry of Environment and Forests on 22 oct., 2010.  It was declared after the recommendation of Task Force on Elephant Project. It was approved by the standing committee of National Board of   Wildlife in its meeting on october13, 2010.


  • Project Elephant(PE), a centrally sponsored scheme, was launched in feb.1992, to provide financial and technical support to major elephant bearing states in the country for protection of elephants, their habitats and corridors.                                    


National Game                 

Hockey is the National Game of India. The  game is played all over  the country in all the states. India was the world  champion in hockey for many years. India  first became the world champion, in hockey , in 1928, by winning the gold medal at Amsterdam Olympics. India has an impressive record with eight Olympic gold medals in hockey. The golden era of hockey in India was the period from 1928-1956.  During  this period India won 6 consecutive   Gold medals in the Olympics.

Fact note

Hockey is not our National Game –RTI reply from sports Ministry.

The  Ministry  of  Youth Affairs and  Sports , in its reply of a RTI application , said that the ministry has not declared any sport the National Game. The  information was sent on August 02, 2012 to a Lucknow  based  7th  class  Aishwarya  by the additional secretary in the sports ministry Shiv Pratap Singh.


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