Historical India : At a Glance

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Historical India : AT A GLANCE

Historical India : AT A GLANCE

Ancient India

  • Earliest civilization  –  The Indus valley Civilization or Harrappan Culture (2500 B.C.)

Divisions of Ancient India  

  • Indradweep
  • Kaseru
  • Tamraparni
  • Gabhistiman
  • Nagdweep
  • saumya
  • Gandharva
  • Baruna
  • India surrounded by the Ocean

Prominent Scriptures of  Ancient India

Four Vedas   

Rigveda (1500-1000 B.C.)       Brahmans- Aitareya, Kaushitaki

Samveda (1000-500 B.C.)        Brahmans- Tandya, Kaushitaki

Yajurveda(1000-500 B.C.)       Brahmans- Taittiriya, Shatpath

Atharvaveda (1000-500 B.C.) Brahman   – Gopatha

Two Epics    

Mahabharata

Ramayana

Eighteen Puranas    –

                                          1. Agni Puran        2. Kurma Puran   3. Garuda Puran

                                          4.  Narad Puran     5. Padma Puran   6. Brahmanda Puran

                                          7.  Brahmavaivarta Puran                    8. Bhavishya Puran

                                          9.  Bhagvat Puran   10. Matsya Puran 11. Linga Puran

                                         12. Markandeya Puran 13.Varah Puran 14. Brahma Puran

                                          15. Vaman Puran     16. Vishnu Puran   17. Vayu Puran

                                          18. Skanda Puran

Facts :The Purans

  • The word ‘Puran’ means old narratives.
  • Every Puran deals with creation, secondary creation, geneology, manu periods and dynastic history.
  • With reference to Ancient Indian History, These are known as Indian Encyclopaedia.
  • These are the historical sources of Nand,  Shishunag, Maurayan, Sunga, Kanva, Andhra-satvahanas and Gupta dynasties.
  • The Purans are classified into 3 cosmic Qualities- Satva, Rajas and Tamas
  • According to some historical sources the Purans were finally compiled during the Gupta Period.

         Facts :    Pre-historic Cultures  : At a Glance                                                       

Sr. No. Age Geological Period Culture Tool Typology
1. Lower  Palaeolithic Age 5, 00, 00-10,000 B.C.
(Early & Middle Pleistocene)
Flakes, Chopper & chopping Culture Pebble tools, Scrappers, Hand axes
2. Middle Palaeolithic Age 5, 00, 00-10,000 B.C. (Late  Pleistocene) Scrapper/Borer Culture Points,  Scrapper, Borer
3. Upper Palaeolithic Age 5,00, 00-10,000 B.C.   Blade & Burin Culture Blades, Burins, Lunates, Knife –Points
4.   Mesolithic Age 8,000-4,000 B.C. (Holocene)   Microliths Culture Geometric, Non-Geometric
  5. Neolithic Age 6,000 -1,000 B.C. (Holocene) Polished tools Culture Mullers , Polished axes , Chisel , Saddle  Quern , Ring Stone  

Four  Upvedas   

Ayurveda(Description about –Medical Science)    

Dhanurveda (Description about –Technique of Wars)

Gandharva Veda(Description about –Music)

Shilpa Veda(Description about –Architecture)

Six Vedangas 

  1. Siksha         (Phonetic)                     2. Kalpa    (Rituals)  

     3. Vyakaran   (Grammar)                     4. Nirukta      (Etymology)

      5.Chhandas  (Metrics)                          6. Jyotisha      (Astrology)

Six Schools of Philosophy  

  • Samkhya    (Propounder- Kapil Muni)    
  • Yoga            (Propounder- Patanjali)    
  • Nyaya          (Propounder- Gautam)    
  • Vaisheshik  (Propounder- Kanad Rishi)    
  • Mimamsa   (Propounder- Jaimini & Badrayana)    
  • Vedanta      (Propounder- Badarayana)    

Eight different forms  of Marriages

Following Eight different forms of Vivaah(Marriage) have been mentioned in the ancient Indian scripture ‘Manu Smriti’-

  • Brahma Vivaah – Brahma was the form of marriage in which a fully dressed and decorated girl was given to a man of the same caste & class by performance of the ceremony mentioned in the holy texts. The bridegroom was selected by the bride’s father.
  • Daiva Vivah –Daiva was the form of marriage in which a well dressed and decorated girl was given to a sacrificial priest by her own father as a part of his fee for performing at the ceremony.
  • Arsha Vivah – Arsha form of marriage was one in which the father of the bride was given a pair of cattle or two cows by the young man in exchange for his daughter. The marriage was based on a system of exchange, instead of dowry.
  • Prajapatya Vivah – Prajapatya form of marriage was one in which the bridegroom is duly worshipped and married to the bride with due honours and blessing.
  • Asura Vivah –In this form of Marriage, price for bride was paid by bridegroom to her father.
  • Gandharva Vivah- This kind of marriage was the union of a willing girl with a man in solitude when both of them were in love.
  • Rakshasa Vivah – In this form of marriage, the girl was forcibly abducted by the man.
  • Paisacha Vivah – In this form of marriage, the girl was seduced while her in sleep and then forced into marriage.

Major Dynasties of Ancient India –

                          Dynasty                                                      Founder

  • Haryank     (544B.C.-413 B.C.)                 Bimbisar
  • Shishunag (413B.C.-344 B.C.)                  Shishunag
  • Nand           (344B.C.-322 B.C.)                  Mahapadmananda
  • Mauray       (322B.C.-185 B.C.)                  Chandragupta Maurya
  • Sunga           (185B.C.-75 B.C.)                   Pushyamitra Sunga
  • Kanva           (75B.C.-30 B.C.)                      Vasudeva
  • Satvahan     (30B.C.-225 A.D.)                    Simuka
  • Kushana      (50A.D.-230 A.D.)                   Kafisus 1st
  • Bharshiv Nag (140A.D.-350A.D.)              Navnag                       
  • Chola              (190 A.D. – 600 A.D.)            Karikal
  • Vakataka       (250A.D.-480 A.D.)               Vindhya Shakti                               
  • Gupta             (275A.D.-550 A.D.)                Srigupta
  • Pushyabhuti (450A.D.-647 A.D.)               Pushyabhti
  • Pallava           (550A.D.-897 A.D.)                Singh Vishnu
  • Maukhari      (554A.D.-606 A.D.)                 Ishan Verma                                  
  • Gurjar-Pratihar (730A.D.-1136A.D.)         Nagbhatta  1st                                           
  • Rashtrakuta (750A.D.-973 A.D.)                 Dantidurga                                      
  • Pala                 (750A.D.-1180A.D.)                Gopal
  • Chandela       (800A.D.-1202 A.D.)                Nannuka
  • Parmar          (800A.D.-1210 A.D.)                 Upendra
  • Chola              (850A.D.-1279 A.D.)                Vijayalaya                                      
  • Chaulkya       (942A.D.-1197 A.D.)                Mulraja 1st
  • Sen                 (1050A.D.-1202 A.D.)              Samant Sen
  • Gang              (1077A.D.-1434 A.D.)               Anant Verman
  • Gaharwal     (1090A.D.-1199 A.D.)               Chandradeva                                       
  • Hoyasala       (1110A.D.-1342A.D.)               Vishnu Vardhan                                    

Facts : Major Indian Eras(samvatas): At a Glance

Era(samvat) Propounder Year       Era (samvat) Propounder Year
Kalinga Samvat Aryabhatta 3102
AD
Kalchuri Samvat Abhir 248 AD
Buddha Samvat Buddha 544 BC Gupta Samvat Chandragupta1st 319-320 AD
Mahavir Samvat Mahavir 527 BC Harsha Samvat Harshavardhana 606 AD
Vikrama Samvat Vikramaditya 58 BC Chalukya-Vikrama Samvat Vikramaditya 4th 1076 AD
Saka Samvat Kanishka 78 AD Lakshamana  Samvat Lakshamana  Sena 1120 AD

Medieval India

Major Dynasties of Medieval India –

                          Dynasty                                                                 Founder

  • Ghulam Dynasty (1206 A.D.-1290 A.D.)     Qutubuddin Aibak
  • Khilji Dynasty      (1290 A.D.-1320 A.D.)     Jalaluddin Khilji
  • Tughluq Dynasty(1320 A.D.-1413A.D.)     Gayasuddin Tughluq
  • Sayyid Dynasty    (1414 A.D.-1451 A.D.)      Khijra Khan
  • Lodi Dynasty        (1451 A.D.-1526 A.D.)     Bahlol Lodi
  • Mughal Dynasty (1526 A.D.-1857 A.D.)      Babur
  • Afghan Dynasty  (1240 A.D.-1555 A.D.)      Shershan Suri  
  • Hindu Dynasty    (1556 A.D.)                         Hemu Vikramaditya

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