Historical India : AT A GLANCE
Historical India : At a Glance
May 15, 2020
Indian Culture & Heritage : At a Glance
May 21, 2020


Important facts about Indian Geography

  • Standard Meridian of India               82° 30’ E
  • Island countries located in Indian Ocean –              Sri Lanka & Maldives

 The river systems of India –   

Himalayan rivers

Deccan rivers

Coastal rivers

Rivers of the inland drainage basin.

Floristic Regions of India –   

  1. The western Himalayas
  2. The eastern Himalayas
  3. The Western Indian Desert
  4. The Gangetic plains
  5. Assam
  6. Central India
  7. Malabar
  8. The Deccan
  9. The Andaman

Facts – Top 10 Highest Peaks of India

S.No. Highest Peak Height (In Metres) State
1. Kanchendzonga 8586 Sikkim
2. Nanda Devi 7817 Uttarakhand
s3. Saltoro Kangri 7742 Jammu & Kashmir
4. Kangto 7090 Arunachal Pradesh
5. Reo purgyil 6816 Himachal Pradesh
6. Saramati 3841 Nagaland
7. Sandakphu 3636 West Bengal
8. Khayang 3114 Manipur
9. Anamudi 2695 Kerala
10. Dodda Betta 2636 Tamil Nadu

Bordering Countries –   

   Country            Length of the border

  1. Bangaladesh                  4,096.7 kms.
  2. China                                3,488 kms.
  3. Pakistan                          3,323 kms.
  4. Nepal                               1,751 kms.
  5. Myanmar                        1,643 kms.
  6. Bhutan                             699 kms.
  7. Afghanistan                  106 kms.

International Land Borders: Some Facts

  • The Indian side of the Indo-Bangladesh border passes through West Bengal (2,216.7 km.), Assam (263km.), Meghalaya (443km.), Tripura (856km), and Mizoram (318km).
  • India-Pakistan border runs along the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir.
  • The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the effective border between India and the People’s Republic of China . It is also known as the McCartney-MacDonald Line.
  • Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram are the States, which share the border with Myanmar.
  • India and Myanmar share an unfenced border of 1,643 km. adjoining the North-Eastern States of Arunachal Pradesh (520 km.), Nagaland (215 km.), Manipur (398 km.) and Mizoram (510 km.).
  • The McMahon Line is a border line between India and china. The line was named after Sir Henry McMahon, foreign secretary of the British-Indian Government. It was agreed to by British Indian Govt. and Tibet as part of the Simla Accord, a treaty signed in 1914.
  • The Radcliffe Line is a boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan. It was announced on 17 August 1947. The Radcliffe Line was named after its architect, Sir Cyril Radcliffe.

States/UTs situated on the coast –   

States/UTs            Length of the Coastline

  1. Gujrat                               1,214.70 km.
  2. Maharashtra                   652.60 km.
  3. Goa                                     101.00 km.
  4. Karnataka                         208.00 km.
  5. Kerala                                 569.70 km.
  6. Tamil Nadu                       906.90 km.
  7. Andhra Pradesh              973.70 km.
  8. Odisha                                476.70 km.
  9. West Bengal                      157.50 km.
  10. Daman & Diu                  42.50 km.
  11. Lakshadweep              132.00 km.
  12. Puducherry                     47.60 km.
  13. Andman & Nicobar    1962.00 km


India is located in the south-central part of the continent of Asia.

Physiographic Divisions –   

  1. The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
  2. The Northern Plain
  3. The Peninsular Plateau
  4. The Indian Desert
  5. The Coastal Plains
  6.  The Islands

The approximate length of the Great Himalayan range (The central axial range) is 2,500 km from east to west, and their width varies between 160 and 400 km from north to south. 

   Sub –divisions of Himalayas                                                         

  1. Kashmir or North-western Himalayas
  2. Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
  3. Darjiling and Sikkim Himalayas
  4. Arunachal Himalayas
  5. Eastern Hills and Mountains.

The average annual rainfall in India- 125 cm

Soils of India –   

Soil                          Widespread

  1. Alluvial soils          – Northern Plains & The river valleys
  2. Black soils              – Deccan Plateau
  3. Red & Yellow soils- Southern part of Deccan Plateau ,Pledmont Zone of the western Ghats
  4. Laterite soils –       Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, M.P.
  5. Arid soils          –     Western Rajasthan
  6. Saline soils       –     Western Gujarat, Deltas of the Eastern coast Sundervan areas of west Bengal.
  7. Peaty soils       –     Northern part of Bihar, Southern Part  of Uttarakhand, & coastal areas of Bengal, Orissa & Tamil Nadu.
  8. Forest soils     –       Forest areas


Climatic Regions of India

(According to Koeppen’s Scheme)

Type of Climate Areas
Amw- Monsoon with short                   dry season West coast of India south of Goa
As – Monsoon with dry          summer Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu
Aw – Tropical savanna Most of the Peninsular plateaus, south of the Tropic of Cancer
Bwhw – Semi-arid steppe               climate North-western Gujarat, some parts of western Rajasthan and Punjab
Bwhw – Hot desert Extreme western Rajasthan
Cwg – Monsoon with dry             winter Gangetic plain, eastern Rajasthan, northern Madhya Pradesh, most of North-east India
Dfc – Cold humid winter with  short summer Arunachal Pradesh
E – Polar type Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal



    Horticulture in India                                            

  •  India is the second largest producer of fruits in the world and holds first position in production of fruits like mango, banana, sapota, pomegranate and Indian Gooseberry.
  • India is the second largest producer of vegetables after China.  
  •  India occupies the second position in production of brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower and onion and third in potato and tomato in the world.                

Major crops of India – 

Types of Crops                         Major crops

  • Food Crops           – Wheat, Rice, Millets, Maize and Pulses
  • Cash Crops           – Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Oilseeds and Tobacco
  • Plantation Crops – Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Coconut
  • Horticulture         –  Fruits and Vegetables

Facts : Various Revolutions

Green Revolution-

The introduction of improved seeds of high yielding varieties, increased and appropriate use of chemical fertilizers and assured and adequate supply of water for irrigation are known collectively as Green Revolution. M.S. Swaminathan is known as the “ Father of the Green Revolution in India”

White Revolution

It is known for remarkable increase in milk production and establishment of a national milk grid, removing regional and seasonal imbalances. Varghese Kurien is known as “Father of white Revolution in India.”

Blue Revolution

It refers to big rise in catching of fresh water and marine fish.

Yellow Revolution

  It is known for remarkable increase in oilseeds production.

Crop seasons in India

  • Rabi- Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December And harvested in summer from April to June. Wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard are some of the important Rabi Crops.
  • Kharif – Kharif crops are sown in the rainy season. Its season starts from July and ends in October. Maize, Sugarcane, Cotton, Millets, turmeric, paddy, ground nuts and red chillies are some of the important Kharif Crops.
  • Zaid – Zaid crops are grown between March and June. Watermelon and vegetables like guard, pumpkin and muskmelon are some of the important Zaid Crops.

Forests & Environment

Forest cover of India

Class                               Area(km2)     % of Geographical Area 

  1. Very Dense Forest                   – 83,471                                 2.54
  2. Moderately Dense Forest    -3,20736                                  9.76   
  3. Open Forest                            – 2,87820                                  8.75
  4. Total Forest Cover1                  – 6, 92,027                           21.05

State with Largest Forest Cover(Area wise)

  1. Madhya Pradesh                  – 77,700 km2 
  2. Arunachal Pradesh              -67,410 km2 
  3. Chhattisgarh                         – 55,674 km2
  4. Maharashtra                         – 50,646 km2
  5. Odisha                                     – 48,903 km2

State/UTs  with Highest Percentage of  Forest Cover –     

(In terms of total Geographical area)   

  1. Mizoram                                   90.68 % 
  2. Lakshadweep                          84.56% 
  3. Adaman & Nicobar Islands 81.51 % 
  4. Arunachal Pradesh                80.50 % 
  5. Nagaland                                  80.33 % 
  6. Meghalaya                                77.02 %
  7. Tripura                                       76.07 %

Mangrove cover of India                                                                        

  1.  In India Mangroves account for about 3 % of the world’s mangrove vegetation and are spread over an area of 4,662.56 km2 along the coastal areas of the country.
  2. Sunderbans (West Bengal) accounts for almost half of the total area under mangroves in India.
  3. Mangrove cover in India is 0.14 percent of the country’s total geographical area.
  4. The very dense mangrove comprises 1,403 km2, which is 30.10 % of the total mangrove cover.
  • Mangrove forests are regarded as the most productive wetlands in the world on account of the large quantities of organic and inorganic nutrients released in the coastal waters by these ecosystems.
  • Asia has the largest amount 42% of the world’s mangroves, followed by Africa 21%, North/Central America 15%, Oceania 12% and South America 11%.

Biosphere Reserves in India

Name                              Area                    Related state/s

  1.  Nilgiri                                5520 km2   Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka
  2.  Nanda Devi                      5860.69 km2                Uttarakhand
  3.  Nokrek                              820 km2                        Meghalaya
  4.  Manas                                2,837 km2                    Asom
  5.  Sunderbans                      9,630 km2                   West Bengal
  6.  Gulf of Mannar                 10,500 km2                Tamil Nadu
  7.  Great Nicobar                   885 km2                Andman & Nicobar
  8.  Simlipal                               4,374 km2                  Odisha
  9.  Dibru Saikhova                 765 km2                      Asom
  10. Dehang-Dibang             5,115.5 km2                Arunachl Pradesh
  11. Pachmarhi *                    4,981.72 km2              Madhya Pradesh
  12. Khangchendzonga          2,619.92km2              Sikkim
  13. Agasthyamalai              3,500.36 km2                Tamil Nadu/Kerala
  14. Achanakmar-Amarkantak 3,835.51 km2   M.P/Chhatisgarh
  15. Kachchh                                  12,454 km2                   Gujrat
  16. Cold Desert                            7,770 km2                Himachal Pradesh
  17. Seshachalam                          4,755.997 km2            Andhra Pradesh
  18. Panna                                        2,998 km2                Madhya Pradesh
  • Recorded Forest Area      –   769,538km2 (23.41% of the country’s Geographical Area)

  Forest Type-wise Forest  Cover in India                                           

Forest Type Group                                             % Forest Cover

  1. Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest                                 2.92                                                                                                    
  2. Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forest                            13.79      
  3. Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest                           19.73
  4. Littoral and Swamp Forest                                         0.69                           
  5. Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest                                41.87
  6. Tropical Thorn Forest                                                   2.25
  7. Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest                                    0.13
  8. Subtropical Broadleaved Hill Forests                       2.69
  9. Subtropical Pine Forest                                                2.63
  10. Subtropical Dry Evergreen Forest                            0.03
  11. Montane Wet Temperate Forest                               0.69
  12. Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest                        4.12
  13. Himalayan Dry Temperate Forest                            0.84
  14. Sub  Alpine/Alpine Forest Plantation/                    2.55
  15. TOF(Trees Outside Forest)                                           5.07

Facts : Classes of Forests

  • Very Dense Forest (VDF): All lands with tree cover of canopy density of 70% and above.
  • Moderately Dense Forest (MDF): All lands with tree cover of canopy density between 40% and 70%.
  • Open Forest (OF): All lands with tree cover of canopy density between 10% and 40%.
  • Scrub: Degraded forest lands with canopy density less than 10 %.

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