Island countries located in Indian Ocean– Sri Lanka & Maldives
The river systems of India –
Rivers of the inland drainage basin.
Floristic Regions of India –
The western Himalayas
The eastern Himalayas
The Western Indian Desert
The Gangetic plains
Facts – Top 10 Highest Peaks of India
Bordering Countries –
Country Length of the border
Bangaladesh 4,096.7 kms.
China 3,488 kms.
Pakistan 3,323 kms.
Nepal 1,751 kms.
Myanmar 1,643 kms.
Bhutan 699 kms.
Afghanistan 106 kms.
International Land Borders: Some Facts
The Indian side of the Indo-Bangladesh border passes through West Bengal (2,216.7 km.), Assam (263km.), Meghalaya (443km.), Tripura (856km), and Mizoram (318km).
India-Pakistan border runs along the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir.
The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the effective border between India and the People’s Republic of China . It is also known as the McCartney-MacDonald Line.
Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram are the States, which share the border with Myanmar.
India and Myanmar share an unfenced border of 1,643 km. adjoining the North-Eastern States of Arunachal Pradesh (520 km.), Nagaland (215 km.), Manipur (398 km.) and Mizoram (510 km.).
The McMahon Line is a border line between India and china. The line was named after Sir Henry McMahon, foreign secretary of the British-Indian Government. It was agreed to by British Indian Govt. and Tibet as part of the Simla Accord, a treaty signed in 1914.
The Radcliffe Line is a boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan. It was announced on 17 August 1947. The Radcliffe Line was named after its architect, Sir Cyril Radcliffe.
States/UTs situated on the coast –
States/UTs Length of the Coastline
Gujrat 1,214.70 km.
Maharashtra 652.60 km.
Goa 101.00 km.
Karnataka 208.00 km.
Kerala 569.70 km.
Tamil Nadu 906.90 km.
Andhra Pradesh 973.70 km.
Odisha 476.70 km.
West Bengal 157.50 km.
Daman & Diu 42.50 km.
Lakshadweep 132.00 km.
Puducherry 47.60 km.
Andman & Nicobar 1962.00 km
India is located in the south-central part of the continent of Asia.
Physiographic Divisions –
The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
The Northern Plain
The Peninsular Plateau
The Indian Desert
The Coastal Plains
The approximate length of the Great Himalayan range (The central axial range) is 2,500 km from east to west, and their width varies between 160 and 400 km from north to south.
Sub –divisions of Himalayas
Kashmir or North-western Himalayas
Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
Darjiling and Sikkim Himalayas
Eastern Hills and Mountains.
The average annual rainfall in India- 125 cm
Soils of India –
Alluvial soils – Northern Plains & The river valleys
Black soils – Deccan Plateau
Red & Yellow soils- Southern part of Deccan Plateau ,Pledmont Zone of the western Ghats
Laterite soils – Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, M.P.
Arid soils – Western Rajasthan
Saline soils – Western Gujarat, Deltas of the Eastern coastSundervan areas of west Bengal.
Peaty soils – Northern part of Bihar, Southern Part of Uttarakhand, & coastal areas of Bengal, Orissa & Tamil Nadu.
Forest soils – Forest areas
Climatic Regions of India
(According to Koeppen’s Scheme)
Type of Climate
Amw- Monsoon with short dry season
West coast of India south of Goa
As – Monsoon with dry summer
Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu
Aw – Tropical savanna
Most of the Peninsular plateaus, south of the Tropic of Cancer
Bwhw – Semi-arid steppe climate
North-western Gujarat, some parts of western Rajasthan and Punjab
Bwhw – Hot desert
Extreme western Rajasthan
Cwg – Monsoon with dry winter
Gangetic plain, eastern Rajasthan, northern Madhya Pradesh, most of North-east India
Dfc – Cold humid winter with short summer
E – Polar type
Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal
Horticulture in India
India is the second largest producer of fruits in the world and holds first position in production of fruits like mango, banana, sapota, pomegranate and Indian Gooseberry.
India is the second largest producer of vegetables after China.
India occupies the second position in production of brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower and onion and third in potato and tomato in the world.
Major crops of India –
Types of Crops Major crops
Food Crops – Wheat, Rice, Millets, Maize and Pulses
Cash Crops – Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Oilseeds and Tobacco
Plantation Crops – Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Coconut
Horticulture – Fruits and Vegetables
Facts : Various Revolutions
The introduction of improved seeds of high yielding varieties, increased and appropriate use of chemical fertilizers and assured and adequate supply of water for irrigation are known collectively as Green Revolution. M.S. Swaminathan is known as the “ Father of the Green Revolution in India”
It is known for remarkable increase in milk production and establishment of a national milk grid, removing regional and seasonal imbalances. Varghese Kurien is known as “Father of white Revolution in India.”
It refers to big rise in catching of fresh water and marine fish.
It is known for remarkable increase in oilseeds production.
Crop seasons in India
Rabi- Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December And harvested in summer from April to June. Wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard are some of the important Rabi Crops.
Kharif – Kharif crops are sown in the rainy season. Its season starts from July and ends in October. Maize, Sugarcane, Cotton, Millets, turmeric, paddy, ground nuts and red chillies are some of the important Kharif Crops.
Zaid – Zaid crops are grown between March and June. Watermelon and vegetables like guard, pumpkin and muskmelon are some of the important Zaid Crops.
Forests & Environment
Forest cover of India
Class Area(km2) % of Geographical Area
Very Dense Forest – 83,471 2.54
Moderately Dense Forest -3,20736 9.76
Open Forest – 2,87820 8.75
Total Forest Cover1 – 6, 92,027 21.05
State with Largest Forest Cover(Area wise)
Madhya Pradesh – 77,700 km2
Arunachal Pradesh -67,410 km2
Chhattisgarh – 55,674 km2
Maharashtra – 50,646 km2
Odisha – 48,903 km2
State/UTs with Highest Percentage of Forest Cover –
(In terms of total Geographical area)
Mizoram 90.68 %
Adaman & Nicobar Islands 81.51 %
Arunachal Pradesh 80.50 %
Nagaland 80.33 %
Meghalaya 77.02 %
Tripura 76.07 %
Mangrove cover of India
In India Mangroves account for about 3 % of the world’s mangrove vegetation and are spread over an area of 4,662.56 km2 along the coastal areas of the country.
Sunderbans (West Bengal) accounts for almost half of the total area under mangroves in India.
Mangrove cover in India is 0.14 percent of the country’s total geographical area.
The very dense mangrove comprises 1,403 km2, which is 30.10 % of the total mangrove cover.
Mangrove forests are regarded as the most productive wetlands in the world on account of the large quantities of organic and inorganic nutrients released in the coastal waters by these ecosystems.
Asia has the largest amount 42% of the world’s mangroves, followed by Africa 21%, North/Central America 15%, Oceania 12% and South America 11%.
Biosphere Reserves in India
Name Area Related state/s
Nilgiri 5520 km2 Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka
Nanda Devi 5860.69 km2 Uttarakhand
Nokrek 820 km2 Meghalaya
Manas 2,837 km2 Asom
Sunderbans 9,630 km2 West Bengal
Gulf of Mannar 10,500 km2 Tamil Nadu
Great Nicobar 885 km2 Andman & Nicobar
Simlipal 4,374 km2 Odisha
Dibru Saikhova 765 km2 Asom
Dehang-Dibang 5,115.5 km2 Arunachl Pradesh
Pachmarhi * 4,981.72 km2 Madhya Pradesh
Khangchendzonga 2,619.92km2 Sikkim
Agasthyamalai 3,500.36 km2 Tamil Nadu/Kerala
Achanakmar-Amarkantak 3,835.51 km2 M.P/Chhatisgarh
Kachchh 12,454 km2 Gujrat
Cold Desert 7,770 km2 Himachal Pradesh
Seshachalam 4,755.997 km2 Andhra Pradesh
Panna 2,998 km2 Madhya Pradesh
Recorded Forest Area – 769,538km2 (23.41% of the country’s Geographical Area)
Forest Type-wise Forest Cover in India
Forest Type Group % Forest Cover
Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest 2.92
Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forest 13.79
Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest 19.73
Littoral and Swamp Forest 0.69
Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest 41.87
Tropical Thorn Forest 2.25
Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest 0.13
Subtropical Broadleaved Hill Forests 2.69
Subtropical Pine Forest 2.63
Subtropical Dry Evergreen Forest 0.03
Montane Wet Temperate Forest 0.69
Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest 4.12
Himalayan Dry Temperate Forest 0.84
Sub Alpine/Alpine Forest Plantation/ 2.55
TOF(Trees Outside Forest) 5.07
Facts : Classes of Forests
Very Dense Forest (VDF): All lands with tree cover of canopy density of 70% and above.
Moderately Dense Forest (MDF): All lands with tree cover of canopy density between 40% and 70%.
Open Forest (OF): All lands with tree cover of canopy density between 10% and 40%.
Scrub: Degraded forest lands with canopy density less than 10 %.
विभिन्न प्रतियोगिता परीक्षाओं में सामान्य अध्ययन एवं भारतीय इतिहास के प्रश्न-पत्र में निश्चित रूप से सफलता दिलाने वाली प्रामाणिक पुस्तकें